Since traffic crash data has been recorded in the United States, the national trend in fatalities has been on the decline while the population and vehicle miles travelled is on the rise. However, in 2016, more than 37,000 people died on the highway, with over 1,000 of them occurring in Michigan alone. During that same year, there were a little over 15,000 homicides and approximately 43,000 died from suicide. The question is why so much of our attention and outrage is given to homicides (15,000 deaths) but not to suicides and traffic crash deaths (80,000 deaths) which are more than five times greater? Vanderbilt has a lot to say about this issue.Students are required to submit a written book review of Tom Vanderbilts Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us). In order to receive full credit for this portion of the final grade, students must comply with the following instructions.Students are encouraged to discuss the book and answers to the specific questions with other students. However, the final review submitted by the student must be the students own work without further assistance.The review should be presented in the following format. Students should use complete sentences, correct grammar, write in paragraph format, and avoid simply making a list of items. The first page should be the title page with the name of the student, title of the paper, course name, and date submitted. Page numbers should be used on each page, except for the title page.Although it is acceptable to use direct quotes from the book, they should be limited in use and appropriately cited. In other words, most of the paper should be in the students own words.The first two pages are to be a general overview of the book similar to a brief book report. Lines should be single-spaced throughout with double-spaces between paragraphs.In addition to the overview, students must address the following issues separately, and provide answers using the designated letter and number before each answer. Students are not to repeat the question but simply provide the answer, indicating I (A), I (B), etc. The answers should be single-spaced, with double spaces between answers.I. (A) Do you identify with Random Acts respondents who support early merging or Live Free or Die respondents who support later merging? Explain the arguments of each.(B) What did the Texas Survey Institute discover regarding merging difficulties? Explain the Dynamic Late Merge trial undertaken by the Minnesota Department of Transportation during the summer of 2003. How do most European traffic engineers deal with the merging problems?(C) Regarding the studies conducted by Ian Walker, explain the factors that influence the behavior of motorists passing cyclists on the road.(D) Explain the propositions about queuing that were developed by David Maister. How do these propositions apply to traffic?(E) What does the theorem in queuing theory state regarding single versus multiple lines?(F) Explain loss aversion as applied to diving in congested traffic. II. (A) Discuss the various complexities of operating a motor vehicle.(B) Discuss the problem regarding the lack of feedback loops.(C) Discuss the various issues with using the word accident to describe crashes involving risky behavior. III. ( A) Discuss the various issues related to distracted driving. Be sure to include the research by Virginia Tech Transportation, Finland researchers of pedestrians, and inattentional blindness (the invisible gorilla study).(B) Discuss the various issues related to the problem of speed in traffic. IV. (A) Explain how cooperation between motorists can lead to less congestion on the highways. What can we learn from ants in this regard? Discuss some of the quirks in car-following, solo driving, and adaptive cruise control.(B) Discuss the inherent bias of traffic engineers regarding pedestrians.(C) Explain how slower can be faster. V. (A) Discuss the various travails of the urban bus driver. Do we give them enough respect?(B) Discuss the various problems in parking. Make sure that your discussion incudes the Christmas tree parking lot arrangement, distinct parking lot strategies, parking foreplay, and free parking. How does Donald Shoup attempt to solve the parking dilemma? VI. Discuss the various reasons why building more roads leads to more traffic, not less. What are some of the proposed solutions to traffic congestion? VII. (A) Explain the paradox of dangerous roads being safer. Discuss the various benefits of roundabouts. What other designs have made roads safer for motorists.(B) What is meant by the concept of traffic calming? Provide some examples. What is the effectiveness of these devices.(C) What does Hans Monderman have to say about traffic signs? What is the basis for his position? Discuss his concept of shared space and its application in Europe. (provide examples). Make sure that your discussion includes marked crosswalks, jaywalking, centerlines, and bicycle lanes. VIII. (A) Compare driving in Delhi, India with that in New York City, Tokyo, Beijing, France, Finland, and Russia. Which one do you think is the best system? Explain the reason(s) why. IX. (A) Discuss the various risks on the road to motorists and efforts by traffic engineers, auto engineers, and legislators to reduce them.(B) Discuss the various issues related to alcohol consumption and driving. Be sure to explain the impact of Super Bowl Sundays on fatal crash data.(C) Explain cognitive dissonance [the term used in modern psychology to describe the state of people when holding two or more conflicting cognitions (e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions) simultaneously] that occurs when people think about fatal accidents, suicides, murders, terrorist attacks, and being struck by lightning. How does the English risk expert John Adams explain this phenomenon? Failure to follow the instructions for submitting the book review will adversely impact on this portion of your final grade.The due date for the book review is Friday, February 1st at midnight. However, students may submit the paper anytime between now and then. A one point penalty will be administered for each hour that the paper is submitted after the due date. This is one of the most important books I have ever assigned to students. Understanding and applying the insights contained in this text should reduce the number of deaths, injuries, and property damage from traffic crashes, which is the stated purpose of police enforcement of traffic laws.